Shangdi, or Shang Di, is the deity whose name translates to ‘High Sovereign’ or ‘Lord on High’. Victory in battle, the fate of the kingdom, harvest and weather is determined by this god. Shangdi rules over a hierarchy of gods which control nature and spirits of the deceased. Due to ruling over the spirits of the deceased, Shang Di can be worshiped through the veneration of ancestors as ancestors accompany Shangdi.
Shangdi was thought of as the supreme god and considered too distant for worship. Over time, Heaven (or Tian) was preferred for worship. The Jade Emperor eventually came known as head of the celestial pantheon.